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This Day in History

Exclusive:WANTED: U.S. workers for crippled Japan nuke plant

A US recruiter is hiring nuclear power workers to help Japan with its nuclear catastrophe which is not improving considerably. "On Thursday, TEPCO said that radiation levels in water found in tunnels under the plant was 10,000 times the normal level and radioactive iodine-131 was found in ground water near No.1 reactor of the complex"

See Reuters.

Asking old people to forgo kidney dialysis

"Kidney specialists are pushing doctors to be more forthright with elderly people who have other serious medical conditions, to tell the patients that even though they are entitled to dialysis, they may want to decline such treatment and enter a hospice instead."

Dutch Harbor monitor register highest radiation in the US -adn

Fukushima, radiation increased -Washington Post Video

US illegally subsidized aircraft maker Boeing -Washington Post

"The ruling says the panel estimated the subsidies were “at least $5.3 billion over the period 1989-2006.”

This is a good update on the Fukushima power plant -Reuters

Radiation is increasing in the ocean near the drain to over 4000 times the legal limit.

Reactor 2 is spewing high level of radiation both liquid and aerosol at 1000 millisieverts/hour; and this unit may take month to tame. looking at pictures published by the IAEA it looks like three out of the 4 damaged reactors are emitting smoke or steam.

Read the story by Mayumi Negishi for Reuters.

Libya conflict: reactions around the world -The Guardian

If it is true the japanese engineers knew a tsunami would over run nuclear power plants, then we must assume that GE engineers knew the plant should not be built.

This also calls for the nationalization of nuclear power plants, because governments may care a little more about people, because they care about themselves. In privately owned nuclear power generators incidents are under reported and dosimeters don't make it to the labs.

What we need is to support the only organization which should protect us and that is the EPA; we need to give $300 billions to the EPA to protect the Americans and the world against contaminated food, water and the abuse of the pharmaceutical companies and to develop research to clean up the industrial unregulated under taxed corporations.

 Our troposphere = one troposphere, under one atmosphere is under attach by neutrons, gamma emissions, rain of radionucleotides and some heavy plutonium leeching into the ground, and Uranium and a soup of other radioactive pollutants for which no one has a defense against.

And humans are extremely sensitive to radiation.

Singapore saw Cabbage with nine times the level recommended for international trade -Reuters

"As operators struggle to regain control of the damaged reactors three weeks after the quake and tsunami, smoke was reported to be coming from a second damaged nuclear plant: the Daini plant, several miles away from the Daiichi plant, on Wednesday, with authorities saying an electric distribution board powering a water pump was the problem." and thus no external radiation releases were expected. There were some problems at Daini at the beginning of the crisis, see earlier posts."


"the International Atomic Energy Agency said radiation measured at a village 40 km from the nuclear complex exceeded a criterion for evacuation."


TEPCO is consulting with specialists on waste disposal; the eternal question.


There are other issues: the reactors may be burning for years to come unless there is an ever cooling source, and thus how do we control the releases? How much of the releases will end up on the small land mass of Japan, it is about the size of California, and beyond? and how much will keep accumulating in the Pacific Ocean and in the atmosphere and where it will be deposited? With Chernobyl we have not yet even reached the half life of the Cs-137 deposited in 1986.


... "We are entering an uncharted territory" suggested Pierre Le Hir in Le Monde. Molten fuel is way hotter than the concrete's melting point  therefore we can expect the molten core, which has broken its way through the bottom of the vessel, to dig through concrete. Because the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear plant is located on the ocean, the meltdown products will/are making there way through the concrete into the environment and into the Pacific Ocean.



Russian warns the West against arming the rebels -Reuters

And France is talking to the rebels to make weapon sales! This wars are meant for the corporations which develop and build nasty weapons to increase their weapon sales which like anything else have decreased by half with the depression.

Composition of the Nuclear releases from Fukushima -IRSN

The Data is from the IRSN

IRSN updated trajectory of the nuclear plume


Mise à jour du 30 mars 2011

A partir des rejets estimés par l’IRSN, Météo France a modélisé la dispersion atmosphérique des rejets radioactifs à très grande distance. Cette modélisation vient d’être actualisée ; elle permet de projeter la dispersion dans l’air des rejets de l’accident de Fukushima à l’échelle mondiale, jusqu’au 1er avril.


 


Unit 2 core has been damaged and molten fuel is out of the reactor vessel -The Guardian reports

"On Tuesday, a US engineer who helped install reactors at the plant said he believed the radioactive core in unit 2 may have melted through the bottom of its containment vessel and on to a concrete floor."


Radioactive iodine-131 at 3,355 times the legal limit had been identified in the sea about 300 yards south of the plant.



Medical researcher Robert Peter Gale suggested to dump all radioactive material in non-gas form into the ocean, he said: "To some extent that's why some nuclear power plants are built along the coast, to be in an area where the wind is blowing out to sea, and because the safest way to deposit radiation is in the ocean.
"The dilutional factor could not be better – there's no better place. If you deposit it on earth or in places where people live there is no dilutional effect. From a safety point of view the ocean is the safest place." 



See the whole article by Justin McCurry


This is a sad world!

Some negative changes -unit 2 core is now considered seriously damaged




Fukushima: "La menace nucléaire perdurera sur le long terme -Le monde

Israel want to land grab more of the West bank

Israel does not want peace.

Syrian government being reshaped due to popular pressure

 President Bashar al-Assad accepts the resignation of his cabinet reports the Washington Post.

If you want to exercise your understanding of units related to radiation -NASA

The words chewed up are: 11% internal (what ever internal means), and 11% X-rays.
Go to space math NASA.

Go to  Le Monde.

These are simple calculations so that units can match and thus can be compared -NRC

Radiation doses are directly proportional to time so when you read an article with measures of min, vs, hourly,daily,vs.yearly... Choose one and adjust so you can compare.

EPA radiation monitoring data


"EPA Monitoring Continues to Confirm That No Radiation Levels of Concern Have Reached the United States

Release date: 03/28/2011
Contact Information: EPA Press Office press@epa.gov
WASHINGTON – During detailed filter analyses from 12 RadNet air monitor locations across the nation, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) identified trace amounts of radioactive isotopes consistent with the Japanese nuclear incident. Some of the filter results show levels slightly higher than those found by EPA monitors last week and a Department of Energy monitor the week before. These types of findings are to be expected in the coming days and are still far below levels of public health concern.

EPA’s samples were captured by monitors in Alaska, Alabama, California, Guam, Hawaii, Idaho, Nevada, Saipan, Northern Mariana Islands and Washington state over the past week and sent to EPA scientists for detailed laboratory analysis.

Detailed information on this latest round of filter results can be found at:
http://epa.gov/japan2011/rert/radnet-data-map.html#results 
"

TEPCO could be nationalized reports the Guardian

If TEPCO is nationalized Japan must also have all of its assets and cash on hands since this accident will be a huge expense to Japan and the Japanese people. I do believe that all nuclear power plants, all over the world should be nationalized because a government is slightly more likely to better protect the public's health.  Yet, this would only be a first step, the next would be to make it illegal in the world to build new nuclear power plants; then finally, within a time frame, close the existing ones by developing viable alternatives.

Food Inflation Kept Hidden in Tinier Bags -New York Times

To hide inflation the content of bags and boxes are shrinking.

"Consumers are generally more sensitive to changes in prices than to changes in quantity", said John T. Gourville, a marketing professor at Havard Business School."

New leak at Fukushima reports the New York Times

Workers are putting sand bags to try to stop the water from going into the ocean. Finally, the Japanese authority are making it public that there was at least some partial meltdown; the IAEA had already mentioned it.

"The deputy director general for the Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency, said that while the detected plutonium levels were low, they pointed to the gravity of the crisis at the complex. Plutonium is a heavy element and not easily dispersed, he said, so higher levels outside suggested a wider leak."

MOX = plutonium plus uranium (natural, reprocessed or depleted) = weapon grade plutonium (therefore it is explosive) -Wkipedia


Mixed oxide fuel, commonly referred to as MOX fuel, is nuclear fuel that contains more than one oxide of fissile material. MOX fuel contains plutonium blended with natural uraniumreprocessed uranium, or depleted uranium. MOX fuel is an alternative to the low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel used in the light water reactors that predominate nuclear powergeneration. For example, a mixture of 7% plutonium and 93% uranium reacts similarly, although not identically, to LEU fuel.
One attraction of MOX fuel is that it is a way of utilizing surplus weapons-grade plutonium, 

Fukushima = nuclear fission, what is nuclear fission?-Wikipedia

nuclear fission is a nuclear reaction in which the nucleus of an atom splits into smaller parts (lighter nuclei), often producing freeneutrons and photons (in the form of gamma rays).

Neutrons can be emitted from fission -Wikipedia

Neutrons:

"Neutrons also degrade materials; bombardment of materials with neutrons creates collision cascades that can producepoint defects and dislocations in the materials. At high neutron fluences this can lead to embrittlement of metals and other materials, and to swelling of some of them. This poses a problem for nuclear reactor vessels, and significantly limits their lifetime (which can be somewhat prolonged by controlled annealing of the vessel, reducing the number of the built-up dislocations). Graphite moderator blocks are especially susceptible to this effect, known as Wigner effect, and have to be annealed periodically; the well-known Windscale fire was caused by a mishap during such an annealing operation."


In order to achieve an effective fission chain reaction, the neutrons produced during fission must be captured by fissionable nuclei, which then split, releasing more neutrons. In most fission reactor designs, the nuclear fuel is not sufficiently refined to be able to absorb enough fast neutrons to carry on the fission chain reaction, due to the lower cross section for higher-energy neutrons, so a neutron moderator must be introduced to slow the fast neutrons down to thermal velocities to permit sufficient absorption. Common neutron moderators include graphitelight water and heavy water. A few reactors (fast neutron reactors) and all nuclear weapons rely on fast neutrons. This requires certain changes in the design and in the required nuclear fuel. The element beryllium is particularly useful due to its ability to act as a neutron reflector or lens. This allows smaller quantities of fissile material to be used and is a primary technical development that led to the creation ofneutron bombs.


Wikipedia

JAZZ-ART-POLITICS: Here and Now: Quote from Gates - Reuters

JAZZ-ART-POLITICS: Here and Now: Quote from Gates - Reuters: "Talking about the Rocket attacks on Israel from Palestinians, Gates Said: 'Israelis will have to make their own decision in terms of how to ..."

JAZZ-ART-POLITICS: Here and Now: Genetically modified crops are getting a boost fro...

JAZZ-ART-POLITICS: Here and Now: Genetically modified crops are getting a boost fro...: "Genetically modified crops are getting a boost fro...: 'Some shoppers are not oblivious, and are aware of the danger of modified crops and ..."

Here is a scary documentary on the all MOX mixed fuel which uses military grade plutonium 238 less 240 recycling of radioactive particles



This video makes understanding the nuclear energy industry a bit clearer. Although, we have not looked at who owns the nuclear power plants of the world; if private they must be public; thus the EPA may know a bit more about what is actually happening in the nuclear power plants in the US. Who owns the NUKES?

While reading Wikipedia article on Fukushima

"On 23 March, it was reported that low level neutron radiation (reported as "neutron beam") was observed several times. The measured neutron radiation may have originated from leaked uranium or plutonium. [263]


On 23 March, it was reported that the cooling pump at reactor No 5 stopped working when it was transferred from backup power to the grid supply.[269][270]


This contains 6375 fuel assemblies and was reported 'secured' with a temperature of 55 °C. After further cooling, fuel can be transferred to dry cask storage, which has shown no signs of abnormalities.[271] On 21 March temperatures in the fuel pond had risen a little to 61 °C and water was sprayed over the pool.[2]


 Asahi Shimbunreported that by 24 March the accident might have emitted 30,000 to 110,000 TBqof radioiodine.[272] On the INES scale, the accident would rate 6 rather than the official level 5, according to the newspaper.


On March 23, Tokyo drinking water exceeded the safe level for infants, prompting the government to distribute bottled water to families with infants.[277] World wide measurements of wind-born radioactive iodine and caesium vented from reactors suggest that levels have reached around 2/3 those during the Chernobyl disaster, though in that case other radioactive material was also released.[10]

The Wall Street Journal reported on 25 March that authorities were considering raising the event to level 6, a "serious accident," one level above the Three Mile Island accident, and second only to Chernobyl.[279] On the same day, Asahi Shimbun supported this upgrading, based on the amount of radioactive contamination.[272][280]
the Finnish nuclear safety authority—estimated the accidents at Fukushima to be at Level 6 on the INES.[283][284] On 24 March, a scientific consultant for Greenpeace, working with data from the Austrian ZAMG[285] and French IRSN, prepared an analysis in which he rated the total Fukushima I accident at INES level 7.[286]"



New Scientist reports that Fukushima releases are "nearing Chernobyl levels" - Wikipedia

On 25 March, Japan's nuclear regulator announced a likely breach and radiation leak in the containment vessel of the unit 3 reactor, the only one at the plant using MOX fuel.[7][8][9] World wide measurements of radioactive fallout released from the reactors were reported by New Scientist to be "nearing Chernobyl levels". It reported that the preparatory commission of theComprehensive Test Ban Treaty Organization had measured levels of iodine-131 at 73% and caesium-137 at 60% the levels released from the Chernobyl disaster.[10] Food grown in the area was banned. Tokyo officials declared its tap water unsafe for infants for a short time.[11][12] Plutonium has been detected in the soil around the plant in five locations [13] The soil samples were taken on 22 March 2011. [14]


Wikipedia has done a good job putting these pages together.

Map of France and radiation -IRSN

Here is a map of the radiation monitoring stations in the US and their readings

EPA map of the different monitors in the US. (CPM = count per minute).

Radiation has been detected n rain water in the US


"Massachusetts, Pennsylvania, Nevada and other Western states are among the states that have reported minuscule amounts of radiation.
Nuclear-plant operators Progress Energy Inc. and Duke Energy Corp. in North Carolina and South Carolina Electric & Gas Co. also said they have detected trace amounts of radiation.
Nuclear experts and health officials said there is no public-health risk. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency said people are exposed to much more radiation on an international airline flight." 
Except that radiation in a flight last for the time of the flight, Cs-137,Cs-134,Strontium-90 and Plutonium, uranium ...will remain around for a long time and keep releasing radiation.

Plutonium in the Soil of the Nuclear power plant -Le Monde

Plutonium 238, 239 and 240 was found in the soil outside the stricken nuclear power plant, and its presence in the soil does confirm that the reactor core and fuels have been damaged. The astonishing thing however is the lack of international coordination to resolve this accident, all that the UN is doing is organizing a summit in June to review nuclear safety.

Plutonium 238 has a half life of 88 years, plutonium 239 of 24,100 years,and plutonium 240 of 6,560 years.

In experiments conducted during WWII plutonium was found to accumulate in bones as does stontium-90 and was found to be more dangerous than radium.

Highly radioactive water leaked into the environment -Reuters

Water in Unit 2 and 3 is highly radioactive and TEPCO found some radioactive water into the piping tunnels at 1,000 millisieverts enough to cause hemorrhaging with a single dose.

Also, Greenpeace detected high radiation beyond the exclusion zone and called for expanding the evacuation zone another 12 miles.

Also, TEPCO has asked the French to help with the situation which is not close to being resolved.


"This is far beyond what one nation can handle -- it needs to be bumped up to the U.N. Security Council," said Najmedin Meshkati, of the University of Southern California. "In my humble opinion, this is more important than the Libya no-fly zone." Finally, someone with reason. For the whole article see Reuters.

The world community must handle this accident so that the reactors can be cooled and then entombed quickly because the radiation releases will affect the rest of the world like Chernobyl did and maybe even more so and thus it is time to pull all of our resources together and immediately. 

There are 166 countries in the Northern Hemisphere which are being blanketed by a continual cloud of radioactive particles

The question must be raised: who are the responsible entities? The fore most responsible entity is GE (General Electric) since it was paid to design and build this atrocity at its location: by the Ocean, in a country with high seismic activity and on a fault.

The others are the Japanese government and the regulatory commissions which authorized a license renewal for Fukushima and it is TEPCO for wanting to continue the operation of an older plant and accumulating more spent fuels by expanding the pools' capacity (which by the way Indian Point power plant in NY has done) resulting in overcrowded pools.

Now, we want to insure that certain precautions are taken and we expect our governments to inform us as to what we can do to reduce the impact of this disaster on our health and insure that our food supply will not be contaminated.

These are raw thoughts.

Great photos and of a huge explosion cloud in Libya -Reuters

Check the slide show from Reuters.

I wonder if the allied (France,US and UK) are using the opportunity to test radioactive weapons which releases would be covered by the Fukushima emissions which are blanketing the Northern Hemisphere.

Sieverts and radiation doses -Wikipedia


Keep in mind that the background of radiation in millisievert (mSv) is 2.4 mSv per year

SI multiples and conversions

Frequently used SI multiples are the millisievert (1 mSv = 10−3 Sv = 0.001 Sv) and microsievert (1 μSv = 10−6 Sv = 0.000001 Sv).
Equivalent dose is measured in the United States in rem[3]:
  • 1 rem = 0.01 Sv = 10 mSv
  • 1 mrem = 0.00001 Sv = 0.01 mSv = 10 μSv
  • 1 Sv = 100 rem = 100,000 mrem (or millirem)
  • 1 mSv = 100 mrem = 0.1 rem
  • 1 μSv = 0.1 mrem
The rem and millirem (abbreviated mrem), as with other customary units in the United States, are in wider use among the general public, many industries, and government.[3] However, SI units such as the sievert are frequently encountered in academic, scientific, and engineering environments.

[edit]Dose examples

[edit]Single dose examples

[edit]Hourly dose examples

  • Average individual background radiation dose: 0.23μSv/hr (0.00023mSv/hr); 0.17μSv/hr for Australians, 0.34μSv/hr for Americans[9][5][10]
  • Highest reported level during Fukushima accident: 1000 mSv/hr[11]

[edit]Yearly dose examples

  • Living near a nuclear power station: 0.0001–0.01 mSv/year[7][9]
  • Living near a coal power station: 0.0003 mSv/year[9]
  • Sleeping next to a human for 8 hours every night: 0.02 mSv/yr[9]
  • Cosmic radiation (from sky) at sea level: 0.24 mSv/year[7]
  • Terrestrial radiation (from ground): 0.28 mSv/year[7]
  • Natural radiation in the human body: 0.40 mSv/year[7]
  • Radiation produced by the granite of the United States Capitol building: 0.85 mSv/year[12]
  • Average individual background radiation dose: 2 mSv/year; 1.5 mSv/year for Australians, 3.0 mSv/year for Americans[9][5][10]
  • New York-Tokyo flights for airline crew: 9 mSv/year[10]
  • Atmospheric sources (mostly radon): 2 mSv/year[7][13]
  • Total average radiation dose for Americans: 6.2 mSv/year[14]
  • Smoking 1.5 packs/day: 13-60 mSv/year[12][13]
  • Current average limit for nuclear workers: 20 mSv/year[10]
  • Background radiation in parts of Iran, India and Europe: 50 mSv/year[10]
  • Elevated limit for workers during Fukushima emergency: 250 mSv/year[15]

[edit]Dose limit examples

  • Criterion for relocation after Chernobyl disaster: 350 mSv/lifetime[10]
  • In most countries the current maximum permissible dose to radiation workers is 20 mSv per year averaged over five years, with a maximum of 50 mSv in any one year. This is over and above background exposure, and excludes medical exposure. The value originates from the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), and is coupled with the requirement to keep exposure as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) – taking into account social and economic factors.[16]
  • Public dose limits for exposure from uranium mining or nuclear plants are usually set at 1 mSv/yr above background.[16]

[edit]

Thanks to Wikipedia for making these available to us.